60 million years ago, the Taurus Mountains rose in the 3rd geological period. Volcanoes started to operate with the compression of the Anatolian Plateau in the north. Erciyes, Hasandağı and Göllüdağ between the two sprayed lava in the region.
Ashes accumulated in the plateau formed a soft tuff layer. The tuff layer was covered with a thin lava layer of hard basalt in places. Basalt cracked and broken into pieces. Rains leaked from cracks and began to erode soft tuff. With the warming and cooling air, winds also joined the formation. Thus, cones with hats from hard basalt rocks were formed. People named this different and interestingly shaped rocks: “Fairy Chimney“.
The tuff plates without basalt cover turned into valleys with erosion. It was of interesting shape. Later on, human hands, labor and emotions were put to work. A civilization was created in a long period, from the settlements dating back nine to ten thousand years to the churches where the first Christians were carved into the rocks, to the large and safe underground cities.
The region is of great importance in terms of tourism today. Avanos, Ürgüp, Göreme, Akvadi, Uçhisar and Ortahisar Castles, El Nazar Church, Aynalı Church, Güvercinlik Valley, Derinkuyu, Kaymaklı, Özkonak Underground Cities, Ihlara Valley, Selime Village, Çavuşin, Güllüdere Valley, Paşabağ-Zelve Anapınar Village are the required places. Traditional Cappadocian houses and dovecotes carved into the rocks express the originality of the region.
These houses were built on the slopes in the nineteenth century, either from rocks or cut stone.
Due to the volcanic structure of the stone region, which is the only architect material of the region, it can be processed very easily since it is soft after leaving the furnace, but it turns into a very durable building material after contact with air.
Due to the abundance of materials used and easy processing, the stone workmanship unique to the region has developed and has become an architectural tradition. The material of both the courtyard and the house doors are wooden. The upper part of the doors made with arches is decorated with stylized ivy or rosette motifs. Pigeons in the region are small structures built in the late 19th century and 18th century.
Some of the pigeon houses, which are important for showing Islamic painting art, were built as monasteries or churches. The surface of the Pigeon is decorated with rich decorations and inscriptions by local artists. The region is also famous for its winemaking and grape growing. They used to use Cappadocia as a home. So now the ruins are removed. These are taken under protection as historical artifacts.